The massive walls of Lahore Fort, built by Akbar in the 1560s, tower over the old city of Lahore, and the huge rectangle they define, 380 by 330 meters (1,250 by 1,080 feet), is filled with buildings from a variety of periods. A complete tour of the fort takes about two hours. The entrance to the fort is through Alamgiri Gate The inscription outside the Fort tells that Jehangir built it in 1618.
Three miles east of Lahore are the famous Shalimar Gardens laid out by the Mughal emperor hah Jehan in 1642 AD. The Gardens are spread out in typical Mughal style and are surrounded by high walls with watch towers at the four corners. Originally, the gardens were spread over seven ascending terraces, but only three remain now, which cover an area of about 42 acres.
Shish Mahal, or Palace of Mirrors, which stands on the fort's north side, is by far the most splendid. It consists of a row of high domed rooms, the roofs of which are decked out with hundreds of thousands of tiny mirrors in the fashion of the traditional Punjabi craft of "Shishgari" (designs made from mirror fragments). A fire-brand lit inside any part of the Palace of Mirrors throws back a million reflections that dizzy the eye and seem like a galaxy of far-off stars turning in an ink-blue firmament.
Out side the museum, not far away, Zamzama, the 18th century fire piece immortalized by Kipling as "Kim's Gun", takes up a surprising length of space in the middle of road.
Sikh Holy Places
Present in the Lahore Region are the following Sikh sites:
Guru Nanak (1469 - 1539 AD) was born at Rai Bhoeki Talwandi now known as Nankana Sahib situated in Punjab province of West Pakistan. Nankana is located about 75 kilometers west-south-west of Lahore and 39 km southwest of Sheikhupura. Nankana Sahib is connected to the district town by rail and road.
Gurdwara Janam Asthan
This shrine in Lahore represents the home of Baba Kalu and Mata Tripta, father and mother respectively of Guru Nanak Dev, (where the Guru was born). It was established by Baba Dharam Chand (1523-1618) son of Baba Lakhmi Das and Grandson of Guru Nanak Dev.
Gurdwara Bal Lila
Gurdwara Bal Lila is another magnificent shrine, about 1.5 furlongs east-south-east of Gurdwara Janam Asthan. It is said to have been built initially by Rai Bular.
Diwan Kaura Mal
Diwan Kaura Mal had this Gurdwara built in 1748. It was reconstructed by Maharaja Rangit Singh, who also enlarged and properly lined the sarovar Nanaksar. It present three-story domed building was raised during the 1930's and 1940's and was completed shortly before 1947.
Chuharkana - Sacha Sauda
It is about 20 kilometers Northeast of Talwandi Rai Bhoi (it is now a railway station on the Sheikhupura-Faisalabad section of Pakistan Railways).
Gurdwara Dehra Sahib
Gurdwara Dehra Sahib symbolizes the Sikh tradition and marks the martyrdom of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563 - 1606). This shrine was built in the memory of Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Sikh Guru who compiled the Adi Granth, the principal part of Sikh scriptures.
Some writers say that the Guru founded Kartarpur (city of the Creator) after his third Udasi. thers believe that he started the habitation of Kartarpur in 1516 right after he came back from his first travel in 1515.
Gurdwara Patti Sahib
It is also called Gurdwara Maulvi Patti and lies midway between Gurdwara Janam Asthan and Gurdwara Bal Lila. It is along the road leading from Janam Asthan to the railway station.
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Ramdas
In Chuna Mandi area stands the ancestral home and birthplace of Siri Guru Ram Das Ji who was born here on 24th September 1534.
Samadhi of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
The ashes of the great Sikh ruler of Punjab, Maharaha Ranjeet Singh, and of his four wives and several slave girls lie in a dome adjacent to the Hazoori Bagh.
Gurdwara Shaheed Bhai Taru Singh Ji
There is another holy place by the name of Gurdwara Shaheed Bhai Taru Sing Ji which is situated near Naulakha Bazar.
Gurdwara Rohri Sahib And Chaki Sahib
Eminabad is near Lahore. Here the Sikh yatris pay homage to the Gurdwara Rori Sahib and Chaki Sahib.
Another small gurdwara close to the Lahore Railway Station known as Shahid Gang has been preserved by Pakistan as it was when occupied by the Sikhs.
Minar-e-Pakisan is a new landmark in Lahore and stands in the Iqbal Park to commemorate the date when a resolution was passed there back in 1940 demanding the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of this sub-continent. The Minar is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture and stands 60 meters tall.
Allama Iqbal's Tomb
Outside the Badshahi Mosque, near its steps, lies the Tomb of Allama Iqbal, the poet-philosopher of the East. The mausoleum is a blend of Afghan and Moorish styles of architecture and is constructed entirely of red sandstone which was quarried and brought from Rajasthan.
The tomb of the fourth great Mughal Emperor, Jehangir, lies three miles north-west of Lahore across the River Ravi. It has a majestic structure made of red sand-stone and marble. The outer entrance to the tomb opens out into a court-yard which was used as a caravan Serai during Mughal times. An entrance to the right leads into a Mughal garden with exact geometrical pattern balancing each side. The marble tomb is approached from four corridors leading from the garden.
Noor Jehan's Tomb
The Empress Nur Jehan, "Light of the World", was the only empress whose name appeared on the coins of the Mughal empire. She was buried in 1845 AD at Shahdara (Lahore) outside Jehangir's mausoleum across the railway line.
He was appointed Governor of India in 1191 AD by Muhammad Ghauri. He established the Slave Dynasty on the death of Muhammad Ghauri in 1206 when he assumed independence of his reign and was followed by nine other slave kings. He was a patron of the building art and is known to have erected some monumental stone buildings in Delhi and elsewhere. A very avid player of polo, he died in Lahore in 1210 AD while playing the game. His tomb can be visited in Anarkali Bazaar.
Tomb of Asif Khan
In the courtyard near Jehangir tomb lies buried his brother-in-law, Asif Khan, father of Shah Jehan's beloved Queen Arjumand Bano. He lies in a tomb that today shows little of its former splendor.
Shrine of Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh Ali Hajvery
The shrine of this renowned saint of Lahore (d. 1071 C.E.), is close to the junction of the Lower Mall and the Circular Road. Data Sahib was a great Sufi saint whose well-known work, "Kashf-ul-Mahjub" has been translated from original Persian into several European languages and is considered a classic. His grave is surrounded by a beautiful mosque.
The Imperial or the Badshahi Mosque is across the courtyard from Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort. The Mosque, which is made up entirely of red sandstone was built by Emperor Aurangzeb, the last of the great Mughals, in a record time of two and-a-half years. Its construction was completed by 1674 AD.It has a beautiful gate-way which measures 21.33 metres in length and a courtyard that measures 161.5 x 160.6 metres and is said to be the largest mosque courtyard in the world for outdoor prayers. The marble domes cover seven prayer chambers. Four lofty minarets stand at the four corners of the mosque, each with an outer circumference of 20 metres, soaring up to 54 meters.
Golden Mosque or Sunehri Masjid
The founder of the mosque was Nawab Shah Bhikari Khan, son of Raushan-ud-Daula Turrabaz Khan, deputy governor of Lahore during the reign of Muhammad Shah and the viceroyalty of Mir Noin-ul-Malik. Golden Mosque is situated in the Kashmiri Bazaar. It was built in 1753 AD. It is remarkably beautiful with three golden domes. The mosque is elevated on a higher plinth, surrounded by old bazaars. Because of its color the mosque glitters in the sunshine as if it is a golden miniature place to bow before the Almighty Allah.
It has a beautiful gate-way which measures 21.33 metres in length and a courtyard that measures 161.5 x 160.6 metres and is said to be the largest mosque courtyard in the world for outdoor prayers. The marble domes cover seven prayer chambers. Four lofty minarets stand at the four corners of the mosque, each with an outer circumference of 20 metres, soaring up to 54 meters.
Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque, beyond the audience hall, was for the exclusive use of royal ladies. It is carved from marble having the luster of pearls. Nearby "Naulakha", a marble pavilion is inlaid with floral motifs and precious gems.
Wazir Khan's Mosque
Wazir Khan's Mosque is in the old city, 300 meters from Delhi Gate. This unique mosque is one of the most beautiful in Pakistan. It was built in 1634 by Hakim Ali-ud-din, popularly known as Wazir Khan, who was governor of the area during the reign of Shah Jahan. The Mosque is justifiably famous for the colorful fresco and tile decoration which adorns both the interior and exterior of the building.